Git Commands

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Revision as of 22:25, 13 November 2012 by MacFreek (Talk | contribs) (Stashing)

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The Git commands are in particular useful with GitHub

Download Code

Download (fork) a remote repository

git clone remote-url
git clone

Add a second remote site as a branch

git remote add branchname remote-url
git remote add camblor

This will create branches under the macfreek/ prefix, e.g. macfreek/origin, macfreek/v1.4 etc. You need to git pull --all to download the new branch.

Download (fork) a remote subversion repository

git svn clone --stdlayout url
git svn clone

Fetch updates from a remote repository

git fetch
git fetch origin
git fetch --all

Fetch and merge updates from a remote repository

git pull master
git pull origin master
git pull --all master

Fetch updates from a remote subversion repository

git svn fetch

Upload Code

Upload committed changes to a remote repository

git push
git push origin

Upload to a different remote repository

Push the local "upstream" branch to the "master" branch at repository "remote":

git push remote upstream:master

Upload committed changes to a remote subversion repository

git svn dcommit

Upload tags to a remote repository

git push --tags origin

Upload to multiple repositories at the same time


Create a Remote Repository

Set up an empty (bare) remote repository

mkdir new-project.git
cd new-project.git
git init --bare

Start a local repository

mkdir new-project
cd new-project
git init
[create some files or folders]
git add *
git commit -m "My initial commit message"

Initial push to remote repository

git remote add origin
git push -u origin master

Delete Remote Code

Delete a remote branch

By default branches are not deleted from a remote site, even not with a git push --all.

git push remotename :branchname
git push origin :branchname

Delete tags from a remote repository

git push origin :refs/tags/12345


Create new branch

git branch branchname

Select a branch to work on it

git checkout branchname

Delete a branch

git branch -D branchname

Rename a branch

git branch -m oldname newname


Stashing is the process to put aside some changes for later re-use. This is used if you are working on code, but some bug report comes in that you like to work on. In that situation, you probably don't want to commit the code you are working on, but you want to stash it.

To create a stash:

git stash save Name-of-stash

To list and delete a stash:

% git stash list
stash@{0}: On master: creating example files
stash@{1}: WIP on master: 06117fb Catch exceptions for unknown values
% git stash drop "stash@{1}"
Dropped stash@{1} (a856cb1e08986b0d366a8623409b0daf7f2ea496)

To reapply a stash:

git stash apply "stash@{1}"

Branch Manipulation

Create multiple pull requests (in GitHub)

Imagine you have made four commits, and want to create two separate pull requests. In this example branch topic1 contains commits B and C, while branch topic2 should only contain commits D and E.

A upstream/master -- B -- C topic1 -- D -- E topic2

Making a pull request for topic1 works as expected, but a pull request for topic2 will contain commits B, C, D and E. Not just D and E.

The solution is to create a new branch and to cherry-pick commits D and E:

git branch -b topic2_req upstream/master
git cherry-pick sha1_D sha1_E
git push origin topic2_req

The history will now look like:

A upstream/master -- B -- C topic1
                  \-- D -- E topic2

Move branch pointer to a different commit

The normal action is to simply delete the old branch, and create a new branch at the desired commit:

git branch -D branch-name
git checkout commit-sha1
git branch branch-name

However, if you want to move the master branch pointer, it may be useful to do the following:

git branch -f branch-name commit-sha1

Undo, second answer


Add a third-party commit without a pull request

git cherry-pick -n sha-1
git commit -c sha-1

This will preserve author information.