Cable Diameter Standards
|Area (metric)||Diameter||American Wire Gauge||Ampacity||Typical Use|
|0.08 mm²||0.32 mm||AWG28||0.8 A||Wires inside a data cable|
|0.10 mm²||0.36 mm||AWG27||1 A||Thin hobby wire (home electronics for up to 30cm)|
|0.14 mm²||0.40 mm||AWG26||1.3 A||Cat5 UTP, Flexible hobby wire|
|0.25 mm²||0.50 mm||AWG23 / AWG24||3 A||Cat6 FTP, breadboard wires, Thicker hobby wire|
|0.50 mm²||0.80 mm||AWG20 / AWG21||5 A||Low voltage power cable (e.g. for phone or doorbell or powering electronics)|
|0.75 mm²||1.0 mm||AWG18 / AWG19||10 A||Power cable between outlet and device|
|1.5 mm²||1.3 mm||AWG16||12 A||Thin power wire in walls (black wire for switches)|
|2.5 mm²||1.6 mm||AWG14||15 A||Normal power wire in walls (power, zero and earth wire)|
|6.0 mm²||2.5 mm||AWG10||30 A||Thick wire in electric panel (groepenkast)|
The metric area is the advertised area, equivalent of mm² copper. The actual diameter, when translated from AWG specification may differ.
The ampacity is the sustained current that can be transported through the wire without exceeding its temperature rating. In this case, the Ampacity at 60°C is given. For higher acceptable temperatures (75°C or 90°C), multiply by 1.5. Peak currents may be 10 times larger if they are short enough (< 10 seconds).
Note that the thickness of the cable is determined by the current (amperage), not by the voltage or power. So a lower-voltage installation requires thicker cables than a higher-voltage installation with the same power consumption. The current (in Ampere) can be calculated by dividing the Power (in Watts) by the Voltage of the appliance.
The thickness of the insulation depends on the voltage, and is not mentioned in this table.
- solid or flexible. A solid core is often used for fixed wiring, and for breadboard wires. Flexible wire contain multiple small strands and is used for flexible cables.
- copper of CCA (copper cladded aluminium). Copper is considered slightly better. CCA is cheaper and is consider good enough.
|Ethernet Category||Max. Frequency||Max. Transmission Speed (@ Max. distance)||Cable type||Number of wires||Remark|
|Cat3||16 MHz||10 Mbps @ 100m||U/UTP||2||Obsolete. Used for voice.|
|Cat5||100 MHz||100 Mbps @ 100m||U/UTP||8 (4 used)||Obsolete. Replaced by Cat 5e.|
|Cat5e||100 MHz||1 Gbps @ 100m||10 Gbps @ 45m||U/UTP||8|
|Cat6||250 MHz||1 Gbps @ 100m||10 Gbps @ 55m||F/UTP||8|
|Cat6a||500 MHz||10 Gbps @ 100m||F/UTP||8|
|Cat7||500 MHz||10 Gbps @ 100m||S/FTP||8||Uses GG45 or TERA connectors. Obsolete by Cat 6a|
|Cat7a||600 MHz||10 Gbps @ 100m||S/FTP||8||Obsolete by Cat 8|
|Cat8.1||2000 MHz||40 Gbps @ 30m||U/FTP||8||Uses regular 8P8C ("RJ45") connectors.|
|Cat8.2||2000 MHz||40 Gbps @ 30m||S/FTP||8||Uses GG45 or TERA connectors.|
|Systematic Name||Old name||Cable protection||Wire-pair protection|
|SF/UTP||S-FTP||Braiding and foil||None|
|SF/FTP||Braiding and foil||Foil|
|U = unshielded|
|F = foil shielding|
|S = braided shielding (outer layer only)|
|TP = twisted pair|
When shielding is applied to a collection of pairs, it is usually referred to as screening, hence STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) is sometimes abbreviated to ScTP (Screened Twisted Pair).
For UTP cabling:
- Welke kabel moet ik kiezen? by Daniel Spijker (Dutch)
- Demystifying Ethernet Types— Difference between Cat5e, Cat 6, and Cat7 by Rita Mailheau